I was greeted this morning with a leaflet dropped off by the largest party in Romania, the PSD (Social Democratic Party). The inheritors of the old Communist machine, the PSD credits itself in the document with everything good that has happened since 1989, and equally gets blamed for much of the persistent corruption and inertia that impedes Romania’s progress. The election takes place tomorrow!
Two parties (including the centre-right Liberals and the anti-corruption USR) are lining up to challenge the PSD, and if their combined proportion of seats adds up to a bigger number than the PSD and its allies, could prevent the PSD from winning the election and installing its choice as Prime Minister.
But one thing will be certain after the election. Because Romania has a Party List Proportional Representation system, the most senior members of the PSD, the ones tarred with perpetuating a system of corruption, will have a paycheck on Monday morning as members of the legislature. For in a party list system, voters are asked to choose which party they prefer. When the seats are allocated according to the parties’ share of vote, the people who get to fill those seats are determined by the “Party List”, and I suspect that Liviu Dragnea, the Leader of the PSD is at the top of the list. With the PSD likely to win between say 35 and 45 percent of the vote, there is effectively no way that voters could rise up and deprive Mr Dragnea of his job.
It’s a system which perpetuates incumbents’ control of the main parties. Mavericks inside the parties, if they challenge the leadership, have a difficult route to rise up the party list.
And the operation of the system can be complex for voters to understand. PR makes it generally easier for minor parties to win representation (above a mininum 5% threshold). And in fact, there are three parties now hovering in the 3 to 8 per cent range. As these parties are likely to have different preferences for coalition partners, the ultimate winner in the election will depend on which parties cross that minimum 5% threshold.
Confused? Just think of whether the fine old folk in northern Transylvania without the benefit of the Globe and Mail are pondering the effect of their minor-party vote on the construction of the post-election coalition.
And I suspect that turnout is low in countries where people don’t understand what is happening, and feel powerless to turn out the people with whom they are unhappy.
While I fully understand that Canada’s first-past-the-post (FPTP) system has its pendulum of disproportionality, there is something cleansing about the Canadian elections that can dispense with governments so cleanly. Somebodies in the Cabinet can become ‘nobodies’ (to use the term coined by our Prime Minister’s father) as the ballots are counted. It’s something that just might do Romania a world of good.
The ideal type of electoral system is a not something to settle in a travel blog, I agree. And Lord knows that Romania has a long set of problems of which Proportional Representation is far from its greatest. I suppose all I want to suggest is that the country I am visiting reminds us that certain types of Proportional Representation do present some issues. Party List PR systems, in my opinion, have the effect of perpetuating power in the hands of party leaders, and hence are resistant to change. A problem in a country like Romania, that needs some changes to happen soon.
There will be some back in Canada who are keen on changes to Canada’s FPTP system, and I have time to talk about improvements. But we have to be careful to understand the effects. And to be fair to our new Canadian government, I believe that our current Prime Minister also does not have a preference for (fixed-list) Proportional Representation systems. We just have to be careful how we run our elections. Because in Canada we have accomplished a few things that other countries would love to replicate.